Improving your aptitude of math will not only help in the classroom, but it will also helps in various other aspects of life; such as work, purchasing items, and organizing your financial portfolio.
How this all started?
I guess someone wanted to count the total of mammouths or T-rex or sheeps or goats, depending on the era they live in….jokes apart. Math was an evolving need to keep a record or just add members to a clan. Took thousand of years or more to be able to get this deep. But lets go for now to what you need the most: Good tips.

Tips to Improve Math Skills:
Make sure that you understand all of the mathematical concepts. If you do not understand the concepts, then it will be difficult to be able to fully grasp the other concepts that you are being taught. Use practice problems and exercises to ensure that you will be able to understand it correctly.

Consider seeking out a proficient math tutor to help explain the mathematical concepts that are making it difficult for you to comprehend the points. They will be able to explain this in a simpler way than how your instructor had taught to you.

Make math a regular part of your life by using it on a daily basis. This will help you to continue increasing your aptitude of the subject.

Learn the mathematical terms in order to gain a better understanding of the concepts.

Buy helpful math guides or borrow books from the library that will assist you further in practicing your math skills.

Make sure to double check your work to make sure it is correct. If the answer is incorrect, take the extra time to figure out why and correct the work.

Write out the numbers and mathematical concepts correctly, as this will help to see the work properly. It is easy to make a mistake if the work is written out sloppily or messy.

Change your attitude to a positive one if you find that you do not like math. It will help you to increase your self-confidence. When you have confidence, it will help with completing the math work. Even if you have the wrong answer to a problem, try to not get discouraged–but be encouraged to keep trying to solve the problem.



Halloween, celebrated each year on October 31, is a mix of ancient Celtic practices, Catholic and Roman religious rituals and European folk traditions that blended together over time to create the holiday we know today. Straddling the line between fall and winter, plenty and paucity and life and death, Halloween is a time of celebration and superstition. Halloween has long been thought of as a day when the dead can return to the earth, and ancient Celts would light bonfires and wear costumes to ward off these roaming ghosts. The Celtic holiday of Samhain, the Catholic Hallowmas period of All Saints’ Day and All Souls’ Day and the Roman festival of Feralia all influenced the modern holiday of Halloween. In the 19th century, Halloween began to lose its religious connotation, becoming a more secular community-based children’s holiday. Although the superstitions and beliefs surrounding Halloween may have evolved over the years, as the days grow shorter and the nights get colder, people can still look forward to parades, costumes and sweet treats to usher in the winter season.

Ancient Origins of Halloween
Halloween’s origins date back to the ancient Celtic festival of Samhain (pronounced sow-in).

The Celts, who lived 2,000 years ago in the area that is now Ireland, the United Kingdom, and northern France, celebrated their new year on November 1. This day marked the end of summer and the harvest and the beginning of the dark, cold winter, a time of year that was often associated with human death. Celts believed that on the night before the new year, the boundary between the worlds of the living and the dead became blurred. On the night of October 31, they celebrated Samhain, when it was believed that the ghosts of the dead returned to earth. In addition to causing trouble and damaging crops, Celts thought that the presence of the otherworldly spirits made it easier for the Druids, or Celtic priests, to make predictions about the future. For a people entirely dependent on the volatile natural world, these prophecies were an important source of comfort and direction during the long, dark winter.

To commemorate the event, Druids built huge sacred bonfires, where the people gathered to burn crops and animals as sacrifices to the Celtic deities.

During the celebration, the Celts wore costumes, typically consisting of animal heads and skins, and attempted to tell each other’s fortunes. When the celebration was over, they re-lit their hearth fires, which they had extinguished earlier that evening, from the sacred bonfire to help protect them during the coming winter.

By A.D. 43, Romans had conquered the majority of Celtic territory. In the course of the four hundred years that they ruled the Celtic lands, two festivals of Roman origin were combined with the traditional Celtic celebration of Samhain.

The first was Feralia, a day in late October when the Romans traditionally commemorated the passing of the dead. The second was a day to honor Pomona, the Roman goddess of fruit and trees. The symbol of Pomona is the apple and the incorporation of this celebration into Samhain probably explains the tradition of “bobbing” for apples that is practiced today on Halloween.

By the 800s, the influence of Christianity had spread into Celtic lands. In the seventh century, Pope Boniface IV designated November 1 All Saints’ Day, a time to honor saints and martyrs. It is widely believed today that the pope was attempting to replace the Celtic festival of the dead with a related, but church-sanctioned holiday. The celebration was also called All-hallows or All-hallowmas (from Middle English Alholowmesse meaning All Saints’ Day) and the night before it, the night of Samhain, began to be called All-hallows Eve and, eventually, Halloween. Even later, in A.D. 1000, the church would make November 2 All Souls’ Day, a day to honor the dead. It was celebrated similarly to Samhain, with big bonfires, parades, and dressing up in costumes as saints, angels, and devils. Together, the three celebrations, the eve of All Saints’, All Saints’, and All Souls’, were called Hallowmas.

Halloween Comes to America
As European immigrants came to America, they brought their varied Halloween customs with them. Because of the rigid Protestant belief systems that characterized early New England, celebration of Halloween in colonial times was extremely limited there.

It was much more common in Maryland and the southern colonies. As the beliefs and customs of different European ethnic groups, as well as the American Indians, meshed, a distinctly American version of Halloween began to emerge. The first celebrations included “play parties,” public events held to celebrate the harvest, where neighbors would share stories of the dead, tell each other’s fortunes, dance, and sing. Colonial Halloween festivities also featured the telling of ghost stories and mischief-making of all kinds. By the middle of the nineteenth century, annual autumn festivities were common, but Halloween was not yet celebrated everywhere in the country.

In the second half of the nineteenth century, America was flooded with new immigrants. These new immigrants, especially the millions of Irish fleeing Ireland’s potato famine of 1846, helped to popularize the celebration of Halloween nationally. Taking from Irish and English traditions, Americans began to dress up in costumes and go house to house asking for food or money, a practice that eventually became today’s “trick-or-treat” tradition. Young women believed that, on Halloween, they could divine the name or appearance of their future husband by doing tricks with yarn, apple parings, or mirrors.

In the late 1800s, there was a move in America to mold Halloween into a holiday more about community and neighborly get-togethers, than about ghosts, pranks, and witchcraft.

At the turn of the century, Halloween parties for both children and adults became the most common way to celebrate the day. Parties focused on games, foods of the season, and festive costumes. Parents were encouraged by newspapers and community leaders to take anything “frightening” or “grotesque” out of Halloween celebrations. Because of their efforts, Halloween lost most of its superstitious and religious overtones by the beginning of the twentieth century.

By the 1920s and 1930s, Halloween had become a secular, but community-centered holiday, with parades and town-wide parties as the featured entertainment. Despite the best efforts of many schools and communities, vandalism began to plague Halloween celebrations in many communities during this time. By the 1950s, town leaders had successfully limited vandalism and Halloween had evolved into a holiday directed mainly at the young. Due to the high numbers of young children during the fifties baby boom, parties moved from town civic centers into the classroom or home, where they could be more easily accommodated. Between 1920 and 1950, the centuries-old practice of trick-or-treating was also revived. Trick-or-treating was a relatively inexpensive way for an entire community to share the Halloween celebration. In theory, families could also prevent tricks being played on them by providing the neighborhood children with small treats. A new American tradition was born, and it has continued to grow. Today, Americans spend an estimated $6.9 billion annually on Halloween, making it the country’s second largest commercial holiday.

How to Save Money Every Month

It’s easy to stop pulling out the wallet every once in a while and declare triumph, but don’t kid yourself – we know it’s the recurring expenses that really drown us into debt. The monthly expenses are what most people neglect because they are subconsciously trained to ignore it after seeing the same line item month after month after month. Let me tell you the truth. It’s the area that’s most beneficial to look into because you work on eliminating it once and you are saving money every month. Want to know where to start? Here’s the tip of the iceberg.

The Usual and Important Bills to Cut Every Month
■Cell Phone – Remember me getting a few hundred dollars for switching cell phone carriers? What I didn’t mention is that many people are starting to look into prepaid plans as well. The per minute cost may be high but if you never experienced having your ears burn because you talk too much on the phone, you probably can save some money by paying as you go.
■Home Phone – I don’t have a home phone and I have no idea why the business model still exists. Do you have one still? That’s so 1980s…
■Internet – Have you looked into the different technology (and thus, options) available to you? Could you actually buy an Internet capable phone and hook it up to a PC (a feature known as tethering) to get essentially the same service for a fraction of the cost?
■TV – The case is made countless times but I bet many of you still pay way too much for your favorite shows. There are many legal ways to watch TV online like and if you are a movie buff, there’s always the idea of using a Netflix coupon to get some free service.
■Gym Membership – Gym? Do you actually go? Most people are going after a healthy and fit body instead of becoming a muscle man (or lady). The fittest people are always the ones who go out to jog every day. They run on the road, on the beach and in the parks. You don’t need to smell other people’s sweat and pay a bunch of money just to stay fit right?
■Clubs, Newsletters, Subscriptions – Enough said. Unless they provide real value, stop paying for it!
■Electricity – Many tricks we know, but in order to save money every month, we have to change our habits! Turn off the lights and electronics whenever it’s not needed, dial down the water heater to 112 degrees, open the windows instead of using A/C are all simple ways to not only save but to put less strain on the overall environment.
■Pills – It’s easy to switch your subscriptions to generic brands and best of all, it’s almost always cheaper. (Stole this tip from Frugal Dad. Check out his list at the bottom of the post)
■Cars – Oil changes and regular maintenance may be out of your league but wash your own cars. Please!
■Insurance Companies – Call the representatives regularly and see if there is a better deal (remember their competition as well). If everyone does this, it may even create more jobs!
Activities You Should Try
■Stop Bringing Your Credit Card Out for a Month – At first, you will feel very restricted but you will slowly realize where you are spending money on. It’s amazing that we remember our purchases so much better when we pay in cash!
■Try Paying All Your Bills by Check for 3 Months – Stop all the automation for 3 months and see what happens. When you have to spend time to handle payments, you will find a way to cut out the ones that aren’t absolutely necessary.
■Pretend You are Broke for 2 Months – The ramen days are over but that doesn’t mean the hard earned money that we have should go to waste. Try it. It’s quite fun (I lived with $34.01 a week once and learned a few things)
■Add Up All Your Monthly Recurring Subscription Cost for the Year – It’s amazing how pricing strategy works. $37 a month is actually closer to $450 a year. It’s not that cheap after all.
■Check Your Credit Card Statements – One of the worst money suckers are the ones that automatically charge our credit cards. It’s no wonder why my credit card balance is 4 digits every month and I left the card in the freezer!
What Do You Do to Save Money Every Month?
I know you have some great tips and tricks. Share with others!

Trapped Miners in Chile Prepare for Book, Movie Deals

Chile’s 33 trapped miners are preparing to swap their underground shelter for the international spotlight as offers from media and moviemakers are set to match their current annual wages.

Chile’s government has trained the men on handling the media frenzy after they’re pulled out from today. Classes were conducted over phone lines threaded through drill holes almost half a mile underground where they’ve been stranded since Aug. 5 when a tunnel caved in at the San Jose copper and gold mine.

Family members camping out in the Atacama desert have obtained lawyers and received book and film offers, said Arnoldo Plaza Vega, 46, whose cousin is among the men trapped inside the mine. For some, life after the rescue may be difficult to handle, said Ana Maria Aron, who heads a post-traumatic stress unit at Chile’s Catholic University.

“It’s hard to grasp how strange it is to come out of a black hole in the ground for weeks or months into this sort of media frenzy,” said Jeff Goodell, whose book about nine Pennsylvania miners trapped for 77 hours was a New York Times bestseller. “The shock of coming into this media spotlight is almost bigger than the shock of being trapped underground.”

Already, the men have been invited to make appearances in Spain, England and Greece, and mining entrepreneur Leonardo Farkas appeared on Chilean television promising each of the miners 5 million pesos ($10,400). Their net annual wages range from 3.8 million pesos to 9 million pesos, said Darinka Darce, a friend of trapped miner Jimmy Sanchez’s family.

Some families are in talks for exclusive rights to post- rescue interviews, Plaza said.

$20,000 Offers

“I’ve heard of some offers for around $20,000 for the first television interview,” he said.

The miners reached a verbal agreement as a group about what they will make public and what will remain private, Plaza said. They plan to legalize the agreement before a notary, he said.

“They are a unified group,” Plaza said. “They were together for two months below and they’ll be together afterward. They will stick together.”

Chilean officials plan to begin extracting the miners later today after drills reached them three days ago, Mining Minister Laurence Golborne told reporters at the mine site. Workers finished installing a metal casing yesterday along less than one-sixth of the 623-meter (2,040-foot) rescue shaft.

In a bid to prepare the men for their newfound fame, Alejandro Pino, the site safety supervisor, gave the miners six hours of classes on how to talk to the media.

Mock Interviews

“We did mock interviews,” Pino told reporters. “We talked about facial expressions and the way you can communicate with your hands and your shoulders.”

The television rights to the miners’ story could be worth as much as $10,000 up front and $50,000 to $100,000 at the time of production, said Scott Manville, founder of, an online marketplace for buying and selling the rights to real- life stories. The movie rights could eventually come with a “purchase price” of $100,000 to $500,000, Manville said in an e-mailed response to questions.

“Their lives won’t be the same after this,” Finance Minister Felipe Larrain said Oct. 8 in an interview from Washington. “They’ll be famous guys.”

The practice of authors and directors mining real-life tragedies and events isn’t new. The 1972 story of the Uruguayan rugby team stranded in the Andes Mountains for 72 days after a plane crash spawned books, documentaries and a film starring Ethan Hawke. The July 2002 rescue of nine Pennsylvania coal miners was the basis for Goodell’s book, “Our Story: 77 Hours That Tested Our Friendship and Our Faith.”


While adjusting to the sudden fame can be tough, survivors sometimes find it just as hard to cope when the spotlight is eventually turned off, said Goodell, who followed up with the Pennsylvania miners a few years after the rescue and found that many of them suffered from post-traumatic stress.

“They’ll be famous of course; there will be books and movies, but they shouldn’t get dizzy thinking that’s the way their lives will always be,” said Ramon Sabella, one of the survivors of the 1972 plane crash in the Andes. “Fame is never permanent,” Sabella, who has visited the mine site in Chile and offered advice, said in a telephone interview from Paraguay.

For now, family members such as Norma Laques, the mother of the youngest miner, 19-year-old Jimmy Sanchez, say they are focusing on the coming rescue.

“We want to get Jimmy out of here,” Laques said. “We want to take him someplace calm so that he can rest.”


Salió Yonni Barrios, el “doctor” de los mineros atrapados.

Con aplausos, vítores y la emoción de sus familiares fue recibido en la superficie Yonni Barrios Rojas, el minero que fue el encargado de ser el “enfermero” de los 33 atrapados, gracias a sus conocimientos y experiencia de primeros auxilios.

Barrios estaba a reportar al ministro de Salud, Jaime Mañalich, el estado de salud de los mineros, realizar exámenes, tomar muestras y vacunar a sus compañeros, por lo que le decían “El Doctor”.

Barrios Rojas, salió de la mina tras 17 horas y 11 minutos de iniciadas las labores de rescate y se convirtió en el número 21 en ser liberado del yacimiento.

Tranquilo, se vio en un muy buen estado y no presentó mayores inconvenientes.

Pero también había expectación pro el rescate del “enfermero” del refugio, por un singular hecho, luego que dos mujeres se disputaran su representación: su esposa Marta Salinas y Susana Valenzuela con quien mantenía una relación de meses, quien fue quien finalmente lo recibió en la superficie, visiblemente emocionada.

Pero Barrios también estuvo preocupado por la propagacion de la noticia. La expectación se generó luego de que fuera del yacimiento dos mujeres se disputaran su representación: su esposa Marta Salinas y Susana Valenzuela con quien mantenía una relación de meses, quien lo recibió visiblemente emocionada.
No se han recibido comentarios. En la superficie, Barrios fue recibido por su actual pareja, Susana Valenzuela. Marta Salinas, su esposa durante 28 años, había anunciado desde ayer que no iba a asistir al rescate del hombre y asi lo hizo.

“Estoy contenta porque se salvó, es un milagro de Dios, pero yo no voy a ir a ver el rescate. Él me lo pidió, pero resulta que también invitó a la otra señora y yo tengo decencia. La cosa es clara: ella o yo”, reclamó la mujer.

Sin embargo, Barrios, quien no tiene hijos, no se destacó sólo por su historial amoroso, sino también por ser el enfermero de la mina, donde ayudó, por ejemplo, a vacunar a sus compañeros. Como su madre era diabética, tuvo desde niño conocimientos básicos médicos.

Hace 6 semanas Marta Salinas, cónyuge de Yonny Barrios (50), supo de la existencia de Susana Valenzuela cuando ambas se encontraron en la entrada al yacimiento diciendo que eran “la mujer del Yonny” y protagonizaron una pelea.

Las mujeres alegaron desconocer sobre la infidelidad. Durante los días previos al rescate, Salinas estuvo en el campamento Esperanza contando a todos su ‘historia de amor’ con Barrios, mientras Valenzuela sostenía que era ‘la novia’ del obrero desde hace cinco años, cuando se conocieron en un curso de capacitación en la mina.

“No lo voy a esperar. Él ya tiene otra y que ella lo espere… Fueron 28 años de matrimonio. Tal vez lo espere en mi casa y si rehace su vida, bien por él”, dijo resignada Salinas.

“Me envió 60 cartas en las que me pedía perdón por lo mal que se había portado y contándome lo que pasaba abajo. Y que sepa la amante de esas misivas y decida. Pero es definitivo, no estaré presente en el plan de subida”, agregó. Y asi fué, Solamente lo recibio la amante, quien muy emocionada lo abrazo.. besandolo llena de emocion. Veamos:


Violence against women is a critical public health problem that has devastating physical and emotional consequences for women, children and families. Women are frequent targets of both physical and sexual assault by partners and acquaintances, as well as strangers. Secretary Donna E. Shalala, DHHS has called domestic abuse against women: “An unacknowledged epidemic in America”. Secretary Donna Shalala (DHHS Fact Sheet March 1994).

Domestic violence during the last 20 years has been acknowledged as being a rapidly growing health concern in America’s communities, and as a result, communities around the country are working to develop strategies to stop the violence and provide more protective mechanisms for women and children who are battered (Hart, 1995).

One report estimates that more than 2.5 million females experience some form of violence each year. Further, almost 2 out of 3 females in this population have been attacked by a family member or a person with which they are acquainted.

For too long, domestic violence has been framed and understood exclusively as a women’s issue. But domestic violence must no longer be viewed as a problem only affecting women — increasingly, spouse abuse is a problem devastating every sector of society, overwhelming our courts and hospitals, spilling over into our streets, and filling our morgues. We must all be a part of the solution if we are to address the deadly toll this epidemic is taking, and men have a critical role to play in doing so.

Lesbian and gay relationships have finally been granted legal recognition by the California legislature. That recognition, however, is not in the form of domestic partners legislation. It is, instead contained in new amendment of the Penal Code. A series of changes, that most recent of which went into effect in January 1995, have revised statutes on domestic violence by removing opposite-sex language and expanding the definition of cohabitant to include “unrelated adult persons” having “sexual relations.” The changes will make it easier for gay and lesbian victims of domestic violence to seek assistance from the courts and police.

This fact sheet covers a wide array of information gathered from a number of national sources, including the Office of Women’s Health in the Department of Health and Human Services.

All women, children and men have the right to live their lives in a healthy and safe environment and to conduct their lives without emotional, physical or sexual abuse or the fear of abuse. The mission of this agency is to work toward eliminating domestic violence and sexual assault and to reduce their effects in our community through crisis intervention, services, education and community involvement.

(Domestic Violence and Sexual Assault Coalition)

What is Domestic Violence?

Domestic violence is abuse committed by a spouse, a former spouse, a fiancee, a boyfriend or girlfriend, and a cohabitant upon another individual. It is estimated that a domestic violence act occurs every 15 seconds somewhere in the United States. That figure translates to over 2.5 million victims per year. This abuse affects the lives of the victim and the children who live within the boundaries of these abusive relationships.

General Information

In 1991, 5,745 women in the United States died as a result of homicide.
Six in every 10 women who are victims of homicide were murdered by someone they knew. About half of these women were murdered by a spouse or someone with whom they had been intimate.
Domestic violence is the leading cause of injury to women between the ages of 15-44.
Every 21 days, a woman is killed by domestic violence.
Children are involved in 60 percent of domestic violence cases.
More than three million children witness acts of domestic violence each year.
Up to 50 percent of all homeless women and children in this country are fleeing domestic violence.
One in ten calls made to alert police of domestic violence is placed by a child in the home.
More than 53 percent of male abusers beat their children.
One of every three abused children becomes an adult abuser or victim.
Victims and abusers are found in every social and economic class, race, religious group, and sexual orientation.
Factors such as poverty, single-parent households headed by women, and parents with less than a high school education were found to be more common among families suffering abuse.
The Women’s Health Data Book Report — Violence Against Women indicated that:
More than 2.5 million females experience some form of violence each year. Almost two of every three of these females are attacked by a relative or person known to them.
The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) found in a national survey that 34 percent of adults in the United States had witnessed a man beating his wife or girlfriend, and that 14 percent of women report that they have experienced violence from a husband or boyfriend.
More than 1 million women seek medical assistance each year for injuries caused by battering.
Two major sources were used to estimate the degree of violence against women in the United States.
The Federal Bureau of Investigations
U.S. Department of Justice’s National Crime Victimization Survey (NCVS) (Horton, 1995).

Family and Intimate Violence

Definition: Family and Intimate Violence can be defined as encompassing threatened or actual use of physical or sexual force among family members or intimate others that either results in or has the potential to result in injury or death.

Violence Against Women encompasses a subset of family and intimate violence including threatened or actual use of physical or sexual abuse against a woman by her family members or other intimates.

Commonly referenced behaviors included within the broad category of violence against women include:
This cursory overview will focus on Domestic Violence and Violence and the recent findings related to their consequences.

More than twice as many women are killed by their husbands or boyfriends than are murdered by strangers. (Arthur Kellerman. “Men, Women and Murder.” The Journal of Trauma. July 17, 1992, pp.1-5). advertisement
In 1992, the American Medical Association reported that as many as 1 in 3 women will be assaulted by a domestic partner in her lifetime — 4 million in any given year. (“When Violence Hits Home.” Time. June 4, 1994).
Among all female murder victims in 1992, 29% were slain by boyfriends or husbands; four percent of male victims were slain by their wives or girlfriends. (Federal Bureau of Investigations, 1993).
The average prison sentence of men who kill their women partners is 2 to 6 years. Women who kill their partners are, on average, sentenced to 15 years. (National Coalition Against Domestic Violence, 1989)
Women who are victims of chronic abuse eventually become violent toward the abuser. Women who kill their spouses have been the victims of spiraling levels of abuse of increasing frequency and severity. Often, police visits to the home on charges of family violence numbered at least five times.
Police are more likely to respond within 5 minutes if an offender is a stranger than if an offender is known to a female victim. (Ronet Bachman, Ph.D. “Violence Against Women: A National Crime Victimization Survey Report.” U.S. Department of Justice Bureau of Justice and Statistics. January 1994, p. 9.)
Firearms are frequent weapons leading to mortality rates of women killed by their spouses, boyfriends or others.
Sixty-three percent of the young men between the ages of 11 and 20 who are serving time for homicide have killed their mother’s abuser. (March of Dimes, 1992).
Spousal Abuse
One longitudinal study focused on spousal physical aggression at 18 and 30 months after marriage. The findings indicated that the pre-relationship predictor variables were history of violence in the family of origin, aggression against others during childhood and adolescence, and personality characteristics.
The relationship predictor variables were marital discord and spouse-specific psychological aggression. The findings suggested that predictive models are different for husbands and wives. For both genders, there were direct paths to marital violence that were not mediated by characteristics of the relationship, as well as paths that originated in or flowed through indicators of the marital relationship. The implications for marital therapy were discussed.

Woman Battering

Battering is the establishment of control and fear in a relationship through violence and other forms of abuse. The batterer uses acts of violence and a series of behaviors, including intimidation, threats, psychological abuse, isolation, etc. to coerce and to control the other person. The violence may not happen often, but it remains as a hidden (and constant) terrorizing factor. (Uniform Crime Reports, Federal Bureau of Investigation, 1990).
Battering is often lethal. Each year, 2,000-4,000 women in the U.S. are murdered by abusive partners/ex-partners.
In the United States, a woman is beaten every 7.4 seconds. Approximately 3-4 million women are beaten by male partners annually.
Battered women are more likely to suffer miscarriages and to give birth to babies with low birth weights. (Surgeon General, United States, 1992).
Over two-thirds of violent victimizations against women were committed by someone known to them: 31% of female victims reported that the offender was a stranger.
Approximately 28% were intimates such as husbands or boyfriends, 35% were acquaintances, and the remaining 5% were other relatives. (In contrast, victimizations by intimates and other relatives accounted for only 5% of all violent victimizations against men.
Men are significantly more likely to have been victimized by acquaintances (50%) or strangers (44%) than by intimates or other relatives.) (Ronet Bachman, Ph.D., U.S. Department of Justice Bureau of Justice Statistics, “Violence Against Women: A National Crime Victimization Survey Report,” January 1994, p. 1).
Annually, compared to males, females experienced over 10 times as many incidents of violence by intimate. On average each year, women experience 572,032 violent victimizations at the hands of an intimate, compared to 48,983 incidents committed against men. (Ronet Bachman, Ph.D., U.S. Department of Justice Bureau of Justice Statistics, “Violence Against Women: A National Crime Victimization Survey Report,” January 1994, p. 6).
There are 1,500 shelters for battered women in the United States. There are 3,800 animal shelters (Schneider, 1990).

According to one survey, almost 133,000 women were the victims of rape or attempted rape each year between 1987 and 1991 (Horton, 1993).
Women were raped by someone they knew which constituted 55 percent of the reported rapes and 45 percent by strangers.
Only 53 percent of all attempted or completed rapes were reported to police.
15 percent reported the rape in order to prevent future occurrences, and 56 percent reported them in order for the perpetrator to be punished.
28 percent did not report the rape because they considered it to be a personal or private matter.
17 percent feared reprisals from the perpetrator.
15 percent felt that the police would be ineffective or insensitive.
Reporting or not reporting the rape event was found to be dependent on the relationship between the victim and the offender.
In the past ten years, reports of men being raped have been on the increase.
Men are often attacked by gangs, assaulted with weapons, and taken by surprise. Drugs and alcohol are sometimes used to incapacitate victims.
Most male survivors were raped as children or as adults who were never incarcerated.
The Commonwealth Fund survey reported that 1.9 million women reported having been raped, and 7.6 million reported having been mugged, robbed, or assaulted in the previous 5 years.
Young, unmarried, separated or divorced women and nonwhite women are the most frequent victims of rape and attempted rape.
African American women experience higher rates of rape than white or Hispanic women.
Regardless of whether a woman was raped by a stranger or someone known to her, 60 percent of them received medical care and 30 percent were injured seriously enough to be hospitalized (Bachman, (1994).

Dating Violence or Date Rape

Date rape prevention workshop included a mixed gender group to discuss the problem among 1,400 undergraduate students in more than 80 presentations. Students were unanimously positive about the need to discuss the issues of date rape (Holcomb, Sondag, & Holcomb, 1993).
One study (Frintner, & Robinson, 1993) examined the prevalence of sexual victimization among undergraduate women at a large Midwestern university and found that alcohol use is strongly associated with sexual violence, and that fraternity members and members of sports teams are over represented among the accused.
Acquaintance Rape: Like Date Rape is also underreported and often unrecognized.

Additional Information

Domestic Violence
The United States Public Health Service treats violence as a health issue and consequently, uses injuries, both fatal and non-fatal, physical and psychological, to quantity the impact of violence.
Children who witness violence at home display emotional and behavioral disturbances as diverse as withdrawal, low self-esteem, nightmares, self-blame and aggression against peers, family members and property. (Peled, Inat, Jaffe, Peter G & Edleson, Jeffery L. (Eds) Ending the Cycle of Violence: Community Responses to Children of Battered Women. Thousand Oaks, California: Sage Publications, 1995.)
Over 3 million children are at risk to exposure to parental violence each year. (Carlson, B.E., “Children’s Observations of Interparental Violence” in Edwards, A.R. (Ed). Battered Women and Their Families. New York: Springer, pp. 147-167. 1984.
From 1983 to 1991, the number of domestic violence reports received increased by almost 117% (NYS Division of Criminal Justice Services, 1983 and 1991).
53% of battered women still involved with the perpetrator experienced self-blame for causing the violence (Barnett, Martinez, Keyson. “The relationship between Violence, Social Support, and Self-blame in Battered women.” Journal of Interpersonal Violence. (1996): 221-33).
Women are more often victims of domestic violence than of burglary, muggings, or other physical crimes combined (The Commonwealth Fund, 1993).
The most rapid growth in domestic relations case loads is occurring in domestic violence filings. Between 1991-1993, of 24 states with three year filing figures, 18 reported an increase of 20 percent or more. (Examining the Work of State Courts, 1993: A National Perspective from the Court Statistics Project. National Center for the State Courts, 1995).

Pregnancy and Violence

Of every 1,000 pregnant women, 154 are assaulted by their partner during the first four months of pregnancy.

During the 5th through the 9th month, 170 out of 1,000 pregnant women are assaulted.

Physical abuse during pregnancy may result in a number of problems:
— fetal fractures
— rupture of the uterus, liver or spleen or
— miscarriage.
Elder Abuse
Detection of elderly abuse is complicated by the effects of normal aging.
Among the elderly, abuse make take four forms:
— Physical abuse
— Physical neglect
— Emotional abuse
— Financial abuse
Incidence of elder abuse was found to be 32 of 1,000 in persons over age 65.
Elderly men are as likely to be abused as elderly women.
Elderly women sustain more severe physical and psychological injury.
The elderly female’s abuser may be:
— her spouse (58 percent)
— her son (16 percent) or
— her daughter (8 percent).
While there is no reliable national data on elder abuse, however, exploratory studies suggest that family members and staff of long-term care institutions often are publicized through mass media (Costa, 1993; Pillemer & Finkelhor 1988,
Special cases have warranted Federal, State and local attention in the development of intervention programs to reduce elder abuse and violence to older Americans (Horton, 1995).

Identified Root Causes of Violence

Root Causes of Domestic Violence
Power and control
Growing up in a cycle of violence and abuse
Distorted concept of manhood
Root Causes of Violence
Poverty and unemployment
Underemployment and economic disequilibrium
Lack of housing and displacement
Circumstances of racism and injustice
Alcohol and substance abuse
Hopelessness and despair


While current data on the incidence and prevalence of domestic violence are not comprehensive in scope, they provide compelling evidence that our nation is experiencing the growth of a major public health problem. As a result of significant preliminary studies, domestic violence is growing at a rapid rate among all U.S.A. classes, cultures, age cohorts, economic and religious groups.

As mentioned earlier, violence against women encompasses a subset of family and intimate violence including threatened or actual use of physical, psychological or sexual abuse against a woman by her family members or other intimates. Commonly referenced behaviors included within the broad category of violence against women include: homicide, domestic violence, partner abuse, dating violence, same-sex violence, spousal abuse, woman battering, elder abuse, courtship violence, sexual assault, date rape, acquaintance rape, marital rape, and stranger rape.

The United States Public Health Service treats violence as a health issue and consequently, uses injuries, both fatal and nonfatal, physical and psychological, to quantify the impact of violence. Populations requiring additional study include: Migrant and Seasonal Farmworker women, Homeless women, African American women, Asian/Pacific Islander women, American Indian and Alaska Native women, and Hispanic women.

The nation is launching comprehensive efforts to reduce violence in general and domestic violence as a special initiative.


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iPod. iPhone.. iPad. iPhadone. What else do you expect from Apple in the future? Thinking of another high-tech handheld gadget? Why don’t think something beyond your imagination, let’s call it ‘iMoove’. iMoove is a mutipowered car concept that has been specifically designed to be driven on the future roads and streets by those who are already using various innovative Apple products. Design of the car was inspired by the Apple team in a venture with an japanese automaker. The original designed resembled a mouse like model; then as tech-geeks went back to the drawing board and added overwhelming features… came out with an amazing model.


To start, it will have the latest technology derived from our Airforce. For instance in order to make feasible the self drive system, it will adapt the GeoView–3000, which is the original GeoView spherical capture system configuration, which provides full 360×360 coverage for single pass capture of an area or indoor space. It consists of six digital and solar cameras in a cube configuration, each providing 90 degrees field of view. The captured video streams are combined into a seamless, perspectively correct spherical display by iMoove’s GeoViewer software package.


The iMoove will be equipped with a broad range of sensors, enabling them to “see” what comes ahead. While the integration of additional electronics serves the need for safety, it can also create security problems. Trends and the options were discussed.

Cars are learning how to see and to recognize their ambience: Things like forward-looking radar that recognizes obstacles in the direction of motion, or rear-view IR sensors as a parking aid, are already a reality.


As mentioned above, this dream car will be equipped with cameras that enable them to see—and literally recognize what they see. For instance, an image processing software connected to the camera will be able to recognize traffic signs and issue a warning accordingly—visually at the instrument panel as well as acoustically. “Our aim is teaching cars to see,” said a top designer on condition of anonimity. “The ability of cars to orientate itself in the traffic with the same senses like human beings is a key to the next-generation driver assistance systems.”


Solar energy is a reality and is part of this secret hybrid project; sort of a back up to other means of Power.
It would appear that someone else is working on a driverless vehicle system with the Induction Powered Vehicle (IPV), which takes magnetic fields technology to its full drive. At first was designed for vehicles that couldn’t afford to be stopped by traffic. Lets use a simple example of how it works: It uses a magnetic track to guide the vehicle, which can be controlled by a cellular phone. 6G-Gamma technology will be required in order to comply with Government and Division of transportation regulations.
That’s right, if you get an specialty vehicle in the future, you might be able to just dial up your location and sit back and enjoy the ride. It certainly beats the heck out of a GPS. Hey, just think of how easy FedEx and UPS drivers will have it. Another back up feature is its antigravity technology to make vertical take-off and landing available on those days when a traffic jam is unavoidable. Not to mention rain and snow. But the trend is favored by designers. iMoove designers want the car to have the ability to automatically take off and land without a pilot while still offering a manual mode that would let the vehicle operator make flight steering commands in real time. Other desirable features are good forward and side visibility from inside the vehicle, 4-D surround sound and video will continue its improvement. Some Bio engineers are customizing a gadget called Will Remote Sensor(WRS), which applies electrical stimulus thru an infrared modulator attached to the side of the brain in order to keep the stream of commands one on one with the Car. Blue Tooth is working on a similar device but is being careful after it suffered a loss to a lawsuit from ION-GAD.


Ship Found 20 Feet Below World Trade Center Site

While building the future of the city, excavators have found part of the past. A 30-foot wood-hulled vessel was discovered about 20 to 30 feet below street level at the World Trade Center site, according to the New York Times. The area, between Liberty and Cedar Streets, had not been dug out for the original trade center in the 1960’s. The vessel found seemed to have been undisturbed for more than 200 years, the Times reported. Construction of the original site required the digging of more than 1.2 million cubic yards, which was used to create 23.5 acres of land along the Hudson River. Top New York News Photos LOOK Top New York News Photos The vessel probably was used along with other debris to fill in land to extend lower Manhattan into the Hudson River, archeologists said. Archeologists Molly McDonald and A. Michael Pappalardo were at the site of the Sept. 11, 2001, attacks on Tuesday morning when workers uncovered the artifacts. “We noticed curved timbers that a back hoe brought up,” McDonald said Wednesday. “We quickly found the rib of a vessel and continued to clear it away and expose the hull over the last two days.” The two archeologists work for AKRF, a firm hired to document artifacts discovered at the site. They called Tuesday’s find significant but said more study was needed to determine the age of the ship. “We’re going to send timber samples to a laboratory to do dendrochronology that will help us to get a sense of when the boat was constructed,” said McDonald, who added that a boat specialist was going to the site Thursday to take a look at the ship. Dendrochronology is the science that uses tree rings to determine dates and chronological order. The workers and archeologists also found a 100-pound anchor in the same area on Wednesday, but they’re not sure if it belongs to the ship. Because construction work could not be interrupted and because the timber began deteriorating as soon as it was exposed to air, Doug Mackey, the chief regional archaeologist for the NYS Historic Preservation Office, told the NY Times. “We’re trying to record it as quickly as possible and do the analysis later,” Mackey told the paper. “I kept thinking of how closely it came to being destroyed,” Pappalardo added. This finding is the first of its magnitude since 1982, when an 18th-century cargo ship was discovered at 175 Water Street. A 1797 map shows that the excavation site is close to Lindsey’s Wharf, which was on the Hudson River at the foot of Liberty Street, and Lake’s Wharf, on the Hudson River at the foot of Cedar Street, once projected into the Hudson. The vessel may have traveled up and down the Hudson River and perhaps the Atlantic seaboard, ferrying goods like sugar, molasses, salt and rum between the warm Caribbean and the uniting colonies to the north. “We found seeds, pits and nuts,” said Pappalardo, of the firm AKRF, a consulting company working with the Lower Manhattan Development Corporation, operators of the WTC site. “They might have been what the ship was used to transport, or they might have been eaten by the people on the boat. We’re working our way through different scenarios.” All three panelists acknowledged that this barely-sketched biography is only the beginning. Scientists are trying to flesh out the picture of the ship, studying everything from the tiny parasites that once burrowed into the ship’s wood, to the tree rings in the vessel’s lumber, to the remnants of animal skins and fur found attached to the ship’s bottom. advertisement | ad info Advertisement | ad info Advertisement | ad info ‘What is that?’ The tale of the Ground Zero ship, as some have dubbed it, began at 6 a.m. local time on a Tuesday in July. In a recent interview, Pappalardo told the story of the ship’s initial discovery. “The day before, we were on-site monitoring, and found all kinds of wooden remains,” Pappalardo told OurAmazingPlanet. The notched logs they found were remnants of tall structures that were sunk in the river as landfill in the late 18th century. Pappalardo and his colleague, archeologist Molly McDonald, arrived on site early on July 13, in case the pilings heralded another, more dramatic find lying under the mud. They didn’t have to wait long. Almost immediately, McDonald spotted a curved piece of wood sticking out of the ground. McDonald, who attended the event last night, said her first thought was, “Whoa, what is that?” The pair got the backhoes to stop digging, grabbed some shovels, and within 10 minutes had uncovered enough timber to indicate they had a ship on their hands. “It was pretty exciting,” she said. The discovery touched off a flurry of activity over the next three weeks as the ship was uncovered and removed from the site. In fact, Pappalardo said, even before the ship emerged from the muck, the site had yielded up thousands of interesting artifacts from the late 1700s and early 1800s — butchered animal bones, ceramic dishes, stemmed glasses, bottles and dozens upon dozens of shoes. “The ship was obviously an added adventure,” Pappalardo said. The ship and the mud that coated it offered up many additional intriguing artifacts, including a human hair with a tiny louse still clinging to it. Save Our Ship Nichole Doub, head conservator at the Maryland Archaeological Conservation Laboratory, or MAC Lab, tasked with stabilizing the waterlogged ship, said freeing the ship from the oily muck was an “assault on the senses.” It didn’t smell very good. But the centuries the ship spent buried in a thick layer of organic matter is what actually preserved it. “There’s not a lot of oxygen,” Doub said, “so microbes can’t live in there – and that’s why everything that stuck out above that sludge layer into the river water was eventually worn away.” The cleaned remains, entirely disassembled, are now soaking in purified water in temporary storage. Doub explained the ship must remain wet, to keep it from cracking and warping. If the timbers dried, evaporating water molecules would literally rip apart the wood’s fragile cells. advertisement | ad info Advertisement | ad info Advertisement | ad info In the process of taking the ship apart, Doub’s lab made another dramatic find: a copper disc inside the ship’s structure, which Doub quickly identified as a coin. An expert at the Smithsonian says it is a half-penny, a British coin, issued during the reign of George II, who ruled England from 1727 to 1760. Placing coins in key structural elements of a ship is a tradition extending back hundreds of years, and still persists today. In 2008, coins were placed within the newly-completed USS New York, the transport vessel built partly with steel beams from the destroyed twin towers, bringing the tradition full circle. What’s next Doub explained that if the Lower Manhattan Development Corp. gives the ship preservation process the green light, the wood will probably be soaked with polyethylene glycol or PEG, a chemical used in everything from toothpaste to eye drops. The PEG will slowly replace the water in the wood’s cellular structure. The timbers would be frozen, and then vacuum freeze-dried, transforming the wood and making it easier for scientists to study without damaging it. “It is solid, it is dry, and it can be handled in whatever way necessary for the next phase of interpretation,” Doub said. The LMDC still hasn’t announced a decision on what will be done with the ship, but researchers hope to have more answers about the vessel’s history by early next year, after they’ve had time to analyze more data, and possibly even come up with a name. Kevin J. Eckelbarger, of the Darling Marine Center in Maine, has given researchers one lead. He identified the culprit that ate away at much of the ship’s wood: Lyrodus pedicellatus, a tiny, burrowing clam he says is typically found in warmer waters. In the meantime, researchers remain divided over how the ship met its end — was it dragged onshore once it was destroyed by invading pests, then dumped back in the water as fill, or did it sink on its own? After a few questions from the crowd at the event, everyone funneled out of the room into the NYAS lobby, where a light buffet awaited attendees. As panelists and audience members sipped wine from squat, plastic stemware and discussed the ship’s provenance, a glance out the floor-to-ceiling windows revealed the World Trade Center site, 40 stories below. A few floodlights illuminated an army of yellow earthmovers, silent, ready to begin work again in the morning.